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Bí quyết giúp đại lý kiếm tiền tỷ từ nhà cái uy tín dễ dàng nhất

Cá cược bóng đá giúp mang về khoản lợi nhuận khổng lồ dành cho các nhà cái và các đại lý. 

Dưới đây là hướng dẫn cách làm đại lý kiếm tiền tỷ từ các nhà cái uy tín dành cho các anh em có cùng chung đam mê.

Danh sách kèo nhà cái thơm nhất đêm nay.

Tìm hiểu và lựa chọn nhà cái uy tín, chuyên nghiệp

Để có thể đạt mục tiêu làm đại lý kiếm tiền tỷ, trước tiên chúng ta cần tìm hiểu và lựa chọn ra được nhà cái uy tín và chuyên nghiệp. 

Anh em cần đưa ra một vài hạng mục quan trọng mà nhà cái đó phải đạt được:

  • Nhà cái được cấp giấy phép hoạt động và có chứng nhận.
  • Đảm bảo an toàn về các khoản tiền cược, tiền thắng cược.
  • Tìm hiểu chi tiết về ngân hàng giữ tiền khi giao dịch (Tên tuổi, địa điểm, hình thức làm việc,…).
  • Đảm bảo quyền lợi cho người chơi.
  • Thủ tục đăng ký tài khoản rõ ràng, đơn giản. 
  • Chính sách chia lợi nhuận cho đại lý. 
  • Đảm bảo quyền lợi cho đại lý.
Bí quyết giúp đại lý kiếm tiền tỷ từ nhà cái uy tín dễ dàng nhất.
Bí quyết giúp đại lý kiếm tiền tỷ từ nhà cái uy tín dễ dàng nhất.

Hướng dẫn cách làm đại lý kiếm tiền tỷ từ các nhà cái uy tín

Sau đây là những bước kiếm tiền từ nhà cái:

Bước 1: Truy cập vào trang chủ của nhà cái 

Khi đã lựa chọn được nhà cái uy tín. Bạn hãy làm theo trình tự sau:

Đăng ký tài khoản của nhà cái. Lúc này, đối với bất kỳ nhà cái nào cũng sẽ hiện lên bảng điền thông tin. Bạn hãy ghi đầy đủ theo những gì nhà cái cung cấp. 

Lưu ý: mọi thông tin cá nhân đều phải được đảm bảo tính chính xác. Nhằm mục đích khi nhà cái gửi mail xác nhận hoặc gọi điện trực tiếp qua số điện thoại thì sẽ liên lạc được với bạn. 

Ngoài ra, khi thông tin được chuẩn xác thì việc giao dịch sau này cũng sẽ thuận lợi hơn.

Để làm đại lý kiếm tiền tỷ từ nhà cái uy tín, bạn cần làm những việc sau:

  • Có tài khoản cá cược trên web nhà cái.
  • Đẩy mạnh tương tác trên trang web hoặc fanpage cá nhân hoặc group để nâng cao tính truyền thông. 
  • Cung cấp những thông tin hay và bổ ích tới những người chơi tiềm năng. Càng được nhiều người quan tâm thì cơ hội kiếm tiền càng lớn.

Bước 2: Chờ xác nhận đăng ký từ nhà cái

Sau khi hoàn tất việc đăng ký và điền thông tin cá nhân. Việc bạn cần làm chỉ là chờ đợi nhà cái xác nhận thành công tiếp nhận đại lý. 

Anh em sẽ nhận được thư phản hồi. Đồng thời nhà cái sẽ cung cấp mọi thông tin và giải đáp mọi vấn đề, thắc mắc (nếu có) nhanh chóng nhất có thể. 

Bước 3: Chính sách hoa hồng dành cho đại lý

Để quảng cáo cho thương hiệu của nhà cái, bạn cần đầu tư thời gian, bỏ vốn, tìm hiểu rõ về các cách soi tỷ lệ kèo bóng đá. 

Ngoài ra, biết về SEO từ khóa và marketing online là một lợi thế. Hãy luôn viết những bài hay, gây sự chú ý nhằm kéo tương tác. Tạo sự giao tiếp giữa đại lý và người chơi. 

Tỷ lệ khách hàng đăng ký tài khoản cá cược trên trang web cá nhân của bạn sẽ tương ứng với số tiền mà bạn nhận được từ nhà cái. Chính vì thế, việc mở rộng trang web sẽ vô cùng quan trọng. 

Đối với mỗi nhà cái sẽ có chính sách chia lợi nhuận, hoa hồng khác nhau. Tuy nhiên, anh em cần đạt chỉ tiêu về:

  • Đạt số lượng người đăng ký chơi cá cược.
  • Chia tiền thưởng theo % số lãi mà nhà cái đạt được từ người chơi.

Top 10 trang cá cược uy tín nhất việt nam 2021

Tổng kết

Để đại lý kiếm tiền tỷ từ nhà cái uy tín đòi hỏi bạn cần phải óc đầu óc kinh doanh. Bỏ ra công sức và thời gian soi tỷ lệ kèo cá cược được cập nhật trên nhà cái để đưa ra các hướng đi hợp lý. 

Flores Surname Meaning and Origin
Tác giả

Flores Surname Meaning and Origin

The surname Flores has existed in Spain since the 12th century, but a common origin has not been found. It is believed to most likely derive from the given name Floro, meaning “flower” from the Latin flos.

Flores is the 55th most popular surname in the United States and the 15th most common Hispanic surname.

Surname Origin: Spanish

Alternate Surname Spellings: FLOREZ, FROYLEZ, FROLAZ, FLORIZ, FLORAZ, FLOR, FLORAN, FLORIAN, FLORIO, FLORIS, FLORI

Famous People With the Surname FLORES

  • Pedro Flores – inventor of the yo-yo
  • Francisco Flores Perez – former president of El Salvador
  • Juan José Flores – first president of Equador
  • Marco Antonio Flores – Guatemalan writer and poet
  • José Asunción Flores – Paraguayan composer
  • Salvador Flores – Alamo defender; recruiter of volunteers in support of the Texas Revolution

Where Do People With the FLORES Surname Live?

The surname distribution data at Forebears ranks Flores as the 167th most common surname in the world, identifying it as most prevalent in Mexico and with the highest density in Honduras. The Flores surname is actually the most common surname in the nation of Bolivia, and also ranks among the top ten last names in Peru (2nd), El Salvador (4th), Honduras (5th), and Guam (10th) and Mexico (10th). It is also common within Guatemala, Chile, Venezuela, Belize and Argentina. Within Europe, Flores is most frequently found in Spain, according to WorldNames PublicProfiler, especially the western provinces of Badajoz and Cáceres. The Flores surname is also found throughout the United States, where it is most common in the states of California and New Mexico.

Genealogy Resources for the Surname FLORES

100 Most Common Spanish Surnames
Have you ever wondered about your Spanish last name  and how it came to be? This article describes common Spanish naming patterns, and explores the meaning and origins of 100 common Spanish surnames.

How to Research Hispanic Heritage
Learn how to get started researching your Hispanic ancestors, including the basics of family tree research and country specific organizations, genealogical records, and resources for Spain, Latin America, Mexico, Brazil, the Caribbean and other Spanish speaking countries.

Flores Family Crest – It’s Not What You Think
Contrary to what you may hear, there is no such thing as a Flores family crest or coat of arms for the Flores surname. Coats of arms are granted to individuals, not families, and may rightfully be used only by the uninterrupted male line descendants of the person to whom the coat of arms was originally granted. 

Flores Family Genealogy Forum
Search this popular genealogy forum for the Flores surname to find others who might be researching your ancestors, or post your own Flores query.

FamilySearch – FLORES Genealogy
Access over 6.3 million free historical records and lineage-linked family trees posted for the Flores surname and its variations on this free genealogy website hosted by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

FLORES Surname & Family Mailing Lists
This free mailing list for researchers of the Flores surname and its variations includes subscription details and a searchable archives of past messages.

DistantCousin.com – FLORES Genealogy & Family History
Explore free databases and genealogy links for the last name FLORES.

The Flores Genealogy and Family Tree Page
Browse family trees and links to genealogical and historical records for individuals with the last name Flores from the website of Genealogy Today.

———————–

References: Surname Meanings & Origins

Cottle, Basil. Penguin Dictionary of Surnames. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1967.

Dorward, David. Scottish Surnames. Collins Celtic (Pocket edition), 1998.

Fucilla, Joseph. Our Italian Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 2003.

Hanks, Patrick and Flavia Hodges. A Dictionary of Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1989.

Hanks, Patrick. Dictionary of American Family Names. Oxford University Press, 2003.

Reaney, P.H. A Dictionary of English Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1997.

Smith, Elsdon C. American Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 1997.

Dissolving Salt in Water: Chemical or Physical Change?
Bí quyết giúp đại lý kiếm tiền tỷ từ nhà cái uy tín dễ dàng nhất
Tác giả

Dissolving Salt in Water: Chemical or Physical Change?

When you dissolve table salt (sodium chloride, also known as NaCl) in water, are you producing a chemical change or a physical change? Well, a chemical change involves a chemical reaction, with new substances produced as a result of the change. A physical change, on the other hand, results in a change of the material’s appearance, but no new chemical products result.

Why Dissolving Salt Is a Chemical Change

When you dissolve salt in water, the sodium chloride dissociates in Na+ ions and Cl ions, which may be written as a chemical equation:

NaCl(s) → Na+(aq) + Cl(aq)

Therefore, dissolving salt in water is a chemical change. The reactant (sodium chloride, or NaCl) is different from the products (sodium cation and chlorine anion).

Thus, any ionic compound that is soluble in water would experience a chemical change. In contrast, dissolving a covalent compound like sugar does not result in a chemical reaction. When sugar is dissolved, the molecules disperse throughout the water, but they do not change their chemical identity.

Why Some People Consider Dissolving Salt a Physical Change

If you search online for the answer to this question, you’ll see about an equal number of responses arguing that dissolving salt is a physical change as opposed to a chemical change. The confusion arises because of one common test to help distinguish chemical changes from physical ones: whether or not the starting material in the change may be recovered using only physical processes. If you boil the water off of a salt solution, you’ll obtain salt.

The Legal Drinking Age in Canada
Flores Surname Meaning and Origin
Tác giả

The Legal Drinking Age in Canada

The legal drinking age in Canada is the minimum age at which a person is allowed to buy and drink alcohol, and right now it is 18 for Alberta, Manitoba, and Québec and 19 for the rest of the country. In Canada, each province and territory determines its own legal drinking age.

Legal Drinking Age in Canada’s Provinces and Territories 

  • Alberta: 18
  • British Columbia: 19
  • Manitoba: 18
  • New Brunswick: 19
  • Newfoundland and Labrador: 19
  • Northwest Territories: 19
  • Nova Scotia: 19
  • Nunavut: 19
  • Ontario: 19
  • Prince Edward Island: 19
  • Québec: 18 
  • Saskatchewan: 19
  • Yukon Territory: 19

Growing Concern About Alcohol Overconsumption

A growing problem of rising and overconsumption of alcohol, particularly among young adults just at the legal drinking age, has raised alarms in Canada. 

Since 2000 and the release of the Canada Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines in 2011, the first such national guidelines, many Canadians have been on a mission to reduce alcohol consumption across the board. Much research has been done on how harmful even moderate alcohol consumption can be and the serious long-term effects on young adults ages 18/19–24, when risky alcohol consumption peaks. 

The Effect of Canadian Drinking-Age Laws

A 2014 study by a scientist with the University of Northern British Columbia (UNBC) Faculty of Medicine concludes that Canada’s drinking-age laws have a significant impact on youth mortality.

Writing in the international journal “Drug and Alcohol Dependence,” Dr. Russell Callaghan, a UNBC Associate Professor of Psychiatry, argues that, when compared to Canadian males slightly younger than the minimum legal drinking age, young men who are just older than the drinking age have significant and abrupt increases in mortality, especially from injuries and motor vehicle accidents.

“This evidence demonstrates that drinking-age legislation has a significant effect on reducing mortality among youth, especially young males,” says Dr. Callaghan.

The minimum legal drinking age is 18 years of age in Alberta, Manitoba, and Québec, and 19 in the rest of the country. Using national Canadian death data from 1980 to 2009, researchers examined the causes of deaths of individuals who died between 16 and 22 years of age. They found that immediately following the minimum legal drinking age, male deaths due to injuries rose sharply by ten to 16 percent, and male deaths due to motor vehicle accidents increased suddenly by 13 to 15 percent.

Increases in mortality also appeared immediately following the legislated drinking age for 18-year-old females, but these jumps were relatively small.

According to the research, increasing the drinking age to 19 in Alberta, Manitoba, and Québec would prevent seven deaths of 18-year-old men each year. Raising the drinking age to 21 across the country would prevent 32 annual deaths of male youth 18 to 20 years old.

“Many provinces, including British Columbia, are undertaking alcohol-policy reforms,” Dr. Callaghan said. “Our research shows that there are substantial social harms associated with youth drinking. These adverse consequences need to be carefully considered when we develop new provincial alcohol policies. I hope these results will help inform the public and policymakers in Canada about the serious costs associated with hazardous drinking among young people.”

High Canadian Alcohol Prices Tempt Importers

There has been a movement to encourage lower consumption by increasing or maintaining the overall price of alcohol through interventions, such as excise taxes and indexing prices to inflation. Such pricing, according to the Canadian Center on Substance Abuse, would “encourage production and consumption of lower-strength” alcoholic beverages. Establishing minimum prices, the CCSA said, could “remove inexpensive sources of alcohol often favored by young adults and other high-risk drinkers.”

Higher prices are seen as a disincentive to youth drinking, but lower-priced alcohol is readily available across the border in the United States.

Both visitors and Canadians are tempted to bring in large quantities of alcoholic beverages bought in the United States, which can be about half the price of such drinks in Canada. 

How Much Duty-Free Alcohol Can Visitors Bring?​

If you are a Canadian or a visitor to Canada, you are allowed to bring a small quantity of alcohol (wine, liquor, beer, or coolers) into the country without having to pay duty or taxes as long as:

  • the alcohol accompanies you.
  • you meet the minimum legal drinking age for the province or territory at which you enter Canada. 

Canadians and visitors may bring in only one of the following. If larger quantities are imported, the entire amount will assess duties, not just the amount exceeding these duty-free quantities:

  • 1.5 liters (50.7 U.S. fluid ounces) of wine, including wine coolers over 0.5 percent alcohol. This is equivalent to (up to) 53 fluid ounces or two 750 ml bottles of wine. 
  • 1.14 liters (38.5 US fluid ounces) of liquor. This is equivalent to (up to) 40 fluid ounces or one large standard bottle of liquor. 
  • Up to 8.5 liters of beer or ale, including beer coolers with more than 0.5 percent alcohol. This is equivalent to 287.4 US fluid ounces or about 24 cans or bottles (355 ml or 12.004 US fluid ounces each).

For Canadians returning after a stay in the U.S., the amount of personal exemption is dependent on how long an individual was out of the country. The highest exemptions accrue after stays of more than 48 hours. If Canadians have been on a day trip to the United States, all the alcohol brought back to Canada will be subject to the usual duties and taxes. In 2012, Canada changed exemption limits to more closely match those of the U.S.

Source

Callaghan, Russell. “Canadian Drinking-Age Laws Have Significant Effect on Deaths Among Young Males.” Matt Wood, Newsroom, University of Northern British Columbia, March 18, 2014, BC Canada.

Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction. “Youth Alcohol Use and Its Harms: Case Study in the Community of Sherbrooke (Report).” Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction, 2018, ON Canada.

How Is Gold Formed? Origins and Process
Dissolving Salt in Water: Chemical or Physical Change?
Tác giả

How Is Gold Formed? Origins and Process

Gold is a chemical element easily recognized by its yellow metallic color. It is valuable because of its rarity, resistance to corrosion, electrical conductivity, malleability, ductility, and beauty. If you ask people where gold comes from, most will say you obtain it from a mine, pan for flakes in a stream, or extract it from seawater. However, the true origin of the element predates the formation of the Earth.

Key Takeaways: How Is Gold Formed?

  • Scientists believe all the gold on Earth formed in supernovae and neutron star collisions that occurred before the solar system formed. In these events, gold formed during the r-process.
  • Gold sank to the Earth’s core during the planet’s formation. It’s only accessible today because of asteroid bombardment.
  • Theoretically, it’s possible to form gold by the nuclear processes of fusion, fission, and radioactive decay. It’s easiest for scientists to transmute gold by bombarding the heavier element mercury and producing gold via decay.
  • Gold cannot be produced via chemistry or alchemy. Chemical reactions cannot change the number of protons within an atom. The proton number or atomic number defines an element’s identity.

Natural Gold Formation

While nuclear fusion within the Sun makes many elements, the Sun cannot synthesize gold. The considerable energy required to make gold only occurs when stars explode in a supernova or when neutron stars collide. Under these extreme conditions, heavy elements form via the rapid neutron-capture process or r-process.


A supernova has enough energy and neutrons to synthesize gold.
gremlin / Getty Images

Where Does Gold Occur?

All of the gold found on Earth came from the debris of dead stars. As the Earth formed, heavy elements such as iron and gold sank toward the planet’s core. If no other event had occurred, there would be no gold in the Earth’s crust. But, around 4 billion years ago, Earth was bombarded by asteroid impacts. These impacts stirred the deeper layers of the planet and forced some gold into the mantle and crust.

Some gold may be found in rock ores. It make occur as flakes, as the pure native element, and with silver in the natural alloy electrum. Erosion frees the gold from other minerals. Since gold is heavy, it sinks and accumulates in stream beds, alluvial deposits, and the ocean.

Earthquakes play an important role, as a shifting fault rapidly decompresses mineral-rich water. When the water vaporizes, veins of quartz and gold deposit onto rock surfaces. A similar process occurs within volcanoes.

How Much Gold Is in the World?

The amount of gold extracted from the Earth is a tiny fraction of its total mass. In 2016, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) estimated 5,726,000,000 troy ounces or 196,320 U.S. tons had been produced since the dawn of civilization. About 85% of this gold remains in circulation. Because gold is so dense (19.32 grams per cubic centimeter), it does not take up much space for its mass. In fact, if you melted all the gold mined to date, you’d wind up with a cube about 60 feet across!

Nevertheless, gold accounts for a few parts per billion of the mass of the Earth’s crust. While it’s not economically feasible to extract much gold, there are about 1 million tons of gold in the top kilometer of the Earth’s surface. The abundance of gold in the mantle and core is unknown, but it greatly exceeds the amount in the crust.

Synthesizing the Element Gold

Attempts by alchemists to turn lead (or other elements) into gold were unsuccessful because no chemical reaction can change one element into another. Chemical reactions involve a transfer of electrons between elements, which may produce different ions of an element, but the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is what defines its element. All atoms of gold contain 79 protons, so the atomic number of gold is 79.


It’s possible to transmute mercury into gold by making it unstable so it decays.
JacobH / Getty Images

Making gold isn’t as simple as directly adding or subtracting protons from other elements. The most common method of changing one element into another (transmutation) is to add neutrons to another element. Neutrons change the isotope of an element, potentially making the atoms unstable enough to break apart via radioactive decay.

Japanese physicist Hantaro Nagaoka first synthesized gold by bombarding mercury with neutrons in 1924. While transmuting mercury into gold is easiest, gold can be made from other elements—even lead! Soviet scientists accidentally turned the lead shielding of a nuclear reactor into gold in 1972 and Glenn Seabord transmuted a trace of gold from lead in 1980.

Thermonuclear weapon explosions produce neutron captures similar to the r-process in stars. While such events are not a practical way to synthesize gold, nuclear testing did lead to the discovery of the heavy elements einsteinium (atomic number 99) and fermium (atomic number 100).

Sources

  • McHugh, J. B. (1988). “Concentration of gold in natural waters”. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 30 (1–3): 85–94. doi:10.1016/0375-6742(88)90051-9
  • Miethe, A. (1924). “Der Zerfall des Quecksilberatoms”. Die Naturwissenschaften. 12 (29): 597–598. doi:10.1007/BF01505547
  • Seeger, Philip A.; Fowler, William A.; Clayton, Donald D. (1965). “Nucleosynthesis of Heavy Elements by Neutron Capture”. The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 11: 121. doi:10.1086/190111
  • Sherr, R.; Bainbridge, K. T. & Anderson, H. H. (1941). “Transmutation of Mercury by Fast Neutrons”. Physical Review. 60 (7): 473–479. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.60.473
  • Willbold, Matthias; Elliott, Tim; Moorbath, Stephen (2011). “The tungsten isotopic composition of the Earth’s mantle before the terminal bombardment”. Nature. 477 (7363): 195–8. doi:10.1038/nature10399
Future Forms for English Learners
The Legal Drinking Age in Canada
Tác giả

Future Forms for English Learners

There are a number of future forms in English, just as there are different forms for the past and present. Let’s take a look at examples of the four different forms: Simple Future, Future Continuous, Future Perfect, and Future Perfect Continuous used to speak in English about the future.

Peter will be at work tomorrow. – Future Simple
She’s going to travel to Hong Kong next month.- Future with Going to
Jennifer will have finished the report by ten tomorrow. – Future Perfect
Doug will be enjoying a good book at this time next week.- Future Continuous
I will have been working for six hours by the time I finish this. – Future Perfect Continuous

The following article takes a look at each of these forms, as well as some variations in future tense usage with clear examples to help explain the use of each.

Listed below are examples, uses, and formation of Future Forms.

Uses of the Future With ‘Will’

The future with ‘will’ is used for a number of situations:

1. Used for Predictions

It will snow tomorrow.
She won’t win the election.

2. Used for Scheduled Events

The concert will begin at 8 o’clock.
When will the train leave?

Used for scheduled events

3. Used for Promises

Will you marry me?
I’ll help you with your homework after class

4. Used for Offers

I’ll make you a sandwich.
They’ll help you if you want.

5. Used in Combination with Time Clauses (as soon as, when, before, after)

He will telephone as soon as he arrives.
Will you visit me when you come next week?

Uses of the Future With Going To

1. Used for Plans 

The future with ‘going to’ is used to express planned events or intentions. These events or intentions are decided on before the moment of speaking.

Frank is going to study Medicine.
Where are they going to stay when they come?
She isn’t going to buy the new house afterall.

Note: ‘Going to’ or ‘-ing’ are often both correct for planed events. ‘Going to’ should be used for distant future intentions (example: He’s going to study Law)

2. Used for Future Predictions Based on Physical Evidence.

Oh no! Look at those clouds. It’s going to rain.
Be careful! You’re going to drop those dishes!

Use of Future Continuous

Use the future continuous to speak about what will be happening at a specific time in the future.

She will be sleeping at 11:30.
Tom will be having a good time this time tomorrow.

Use of Future Perfect

Use the future perfect to speak about what will have been finished by a time in the future.

I will have finished the book by tomorrow.
Angela will have fond a new job by the end of the year.

Use of the Future Perfect Continuous

Use the future perfect continuous to speak about how long something will have been happening up to a point of time in the future.

They will have been studying for five hours by six o’clock.
Mary will have been playing golf for five hours by the time she finishes.

Uses of Present Continuous for the Future

It’s also possible to use the present continuous for planned or personally scheduled events. Usually used with principle verbs such as: come, go, begin, start, finish, have, etc.

Note: ‘Going to’ or ‘-ing’ are often both correct for planned events. ‘Going to’ should be used for distant future intentions (example: He’s going to study Law)

He’s coming tomorrow afternoon.
What are we having for dinner?
I’m not seeing the doctor until Friday.

Common future time expressions include: next (week, month, year), tomorrow, in X’s time (amount of time, i.e. two week’s time), in year, time clauses (when, as soon as, before, after) simple present (example: I will telephone as soon as I arrive) soon, later.

10 Fast Facts About Amphibians
How Is Gold Formed? Origins and Process
Tác giả

10 Fast Facts About Amphibians

Amphibians are a class of animal that represents a crucial evolutionary step between water-dwelling fish and land-dwelling mammals and reptiles. They are among the most fascinating (and rapidly dwindling) animals on earth. 

Unlike most animals, amphibians such as toads, frogs, newts, and salamanders finish up much of their final development as an organism after they are born, changing from marine-based to land-based lifestyles in the first few days of life. What else makes this group of creatures so fascinating?

There Are Three Major Types of Amphibians

Robert Trevis-Smith / Getty Images


Naturalists divide amphibians into three main families: frogs and toads; salamanders and newts; and the strange, worm-like, limbless vertebrates called caecilians. There are currently about 6,000 species of frogs and toads around the world, but only one-tenth as many newts and salamanders and even fewer caecilians.

All of the living amphibians are technically classified as lissamphibians (smooth-skinned); but there are also two long-extinct amphibian families, lepospondyls, and temnospondyls, some of which attained astonishing sizes during the later ​Paleozoic Era.

Most Undergo Metamorphosis

Johner Images / Getty Images


True to their evolutionary position halfway between fish and fully terrestrial vertebrates, most amphibians hatch from eggs laid in water and briefly pursue a fully marine lifestyle, complete with external gills. These larvae then undergo a metamorphosis in which they lose their tails, shed their gills, grow sturdy legs, and develop primitive lungs, at which point they can scramble up onto dry land.

The most familiar larval stage is the tadpoles of frogs, but this metamorphic process also occurs (a bit less strikingly) in newts, salamanders, and caecilians.

Amphibians Must Live Near Water

Franklin Kappa / Getty Images


The word “amphibian” is Greek for “both kinds of life,” and that pretty much sums up what makes these vertebrates special: they have to lay their eggs in the water and require a steady supply of moisture in order to survive. 

To put it a bit more plainly, amphibians are perched midway on the evolutionary tree between fish, which lead a fully marine lifestyle, and reptiles and mammals, which are fully terrestrial and either lay their eggs on dry land or give birth to live young. Amphibians may be found in a variety of habitats near or in water or damp areas, such as streams, bogs, swamps, forests, meadows, and rainforests.

They Have Permeable Skin

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Part of the reason amphibians have to stay in or near bodies of water is that they have thin, water-permeable skin; if these animals ventured too far inland, they would literally dry up and die.

To help keep their skin moist, amphibians are constantly secreting mucous (hence the reputation of frogs and salamanders as “slimy” creatures), and their dermis is also studded with glands that produce noxious chemicals, meant to deter predators. In most species, these toxins are barely noticeable, but some frogs are sufficiently poisonous to kill a full-grown human being.

They Are Descended From Lobe-Finned Fish


Crassigyrinus, one of the first amphibians.

Nobu Tamura / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY 2.5


At some time during the Devonian period, about 400 million years ago, a brave lobe-finned fish ventured onto dry land—not a one-time event, as is often depicted in cartoons, but numerous individuals on numerous occasions, only one of which went on to produce descendants that are still alive today.​

With their four limbs and five-toed feet, these ancestral tetrapods set the template for later vertebrate evolution, and various populations went on over the ensuing few million years to spawn the first primitive amphibians like Eucritta and Crassigyrinus.

Millions of Years Ago, Amphibians Ruled the Earth

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For about 100 million years, from the early part of the Carboniferous period about 350 million years ago to the end of the Permian period about 250 million years ago, amphibians were the dominant terrestrial animals on earth. Then they lost pride of place to various families of reptiles that evolved from isolated amphibian populations, including archosaurs (which eventually evolved into dinosaurs) and therapsids (which eventually evolved into mammals).

A classic temnospondyl amphibian was the big-headed Eryops, which measured about six feet (about two meters) from head to tail and weighed in the neighborhood of 200 pounds (90 kilograms).

They Swallow Their Prey Whole

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Unlike reptiles and mammals, amphibians don’t have the ability to chew their food; they’re also poorly equipped dentally, with only a few primitive “vomerine teeth” in the front upper part of the jaws that allow them to hold onto wriggling prey.

Somewhat making up for this deficit, though, most amphibians also possess long, sticky tongues, which they flick out at lightning speeds to snag their meals; some species also indulge in “inertial feeding,” clumsily jerking their heads forward in order to slowly stuff prey toward the back of their mouths.

They Have Extremely Primitive Lungs

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Much of the progress in vertebrate evolution goes hand-in-hand (or alveolus-in-alveolus) with the efficiency of a given species’ lungs. By this reckoning, amphibians are positioned near the bottom of the oxygen-breathing ladder: Their lungs have a relatively low internal volume, and can’t process nearly as much air as the lungs of reptiles and mammals.

Fortunately, amphibians can also absorb limited amounts of oxygen through their moist, permeable skin, thus enabling them, just barely, to fulfill their metabolic needs.

Like Reptiles, Amphibians Are Cold-Blooded

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Warm-blooded metabolisms are usually associated with more “advanced” vertebrates, so it’s no surprise that amphibians are strictly ectothermic—they heat up, and cool down according to the ambient temperature of the surrounding environment.

This is good news in that warm-blooded animals have to eat much more food to maintain their internal body temperature, but it’s bad news in that amphibians are extremely limited in the ecosystems in which they can thrive in—a few degrees too hot, or a few degrees too cold, and they will immediately perish.

Amphibians Are Among the World’s Most Endangered Animals

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With their small size, permeable skins and dependence on easily accessible bodies of water, amphibians are more vulnerable than most other animals to endangerment and extinction; it’s believed that half of all the world’s amphibian species are directly threatened by pollution, habitat destruction, invasive species, and even the erosion of the ozone layer.

Perhaps the greatest threat to frogs, salamanders, and caecilians is the chytrid fungus, which some experts maintain is linked to global warming and has been decimating amphibian species worldwide.

Why Is Getting Rid of Bed Bugs So Hard?
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Why Is Getting Rid of Bed Bugs So Hard?

Bedbugs are notoriously difficult to eliminate and, unfortunately, they’re on the rise. Fortunately, there are some ways to alleviate a bed bug infestation, but short of bringing back harsh insecticides like DDT, there are no absolute guarantees of a complete bed bug elimination.

They Seem Invincible

There are several reasons why eliminating bed bugs is so hard. These tiny bugs multiply quickly and they can go long periods of time without their preferred meal: human blood.

Bed bugs are hardy, small, flat, lentil-sized insects that are adept at squeezing themselves into tiny spaces. They are commonly found hiding behind loose wallpaper or under floorboards and electrical switch plates. To successfully eliminate an infestation, you have to find and kill every viable bed bug, which is not an easy task.

Bed bugs multiply quickly. A single female can lay 500 eggs during her life and within a few months, the offspring can reproduce as well. A few bugs introduced to a new environment can increase exponentially. Depending on conditions, bed bugs can produce three to four generations in one year. Bed bugs reproduce most quickly in temperatures between 70 and 82 degrees Fahrenheit, which happens to be the range where most people keep their thermostats.

Bed bugs can go a remarkably long time without feeding, should no host be present to provide them with needed blood meals. Scientists have documented that adult bed bugs can live up to 550 days, but usually closer to one year without eating, and nymphs may last for months. So simply leaving an infested dwelling unoccupied for a few months in hopes of starving them out will do nothing to discourage the little freeloaders.

How Hard Is It to Get Rid of Bed Bugs?

There are a few things you can try for removing a bed bug infestation from your home. There are specialized exterminators, barriers to prevent your mattress from being a permanent home for bugs and good, old-fashioned, top-to-bottom cleaning that you can do to rid your house of an infestation.

As the problem of bed bugs has reemerged in recent years, so has the influx of specialized bed bug exterminators. Exterminators are experts at pest control and can be a very viable option for eliminating a bed bug problem. A downside to extermination is that bed bugs can sense chemical odors and may avoid areas where cleaning agents or even pesticides have been applied. Some scientists believe bed bugs have developed a resistance to certain insecticides as well. 

Bed bugs like to live next to their meal source. Since most bedbugs strike at night, your bed is a great habitat for them. To protect your mattress from an infestation or to curb a mattress infestation that may have occurred, you can purchase a bed bug mattress cover or encasement to discourage bugs from making a permanent home in your bed or trap the bugs inside the encasement.

The absolute best possible way to rid a dwelling of bed bugs is to clean or treat every possible bed bug hiding place. In a home, this means all clothing, bedding, linens, and other washable fabrics must be laundered at high temps and with bleach where appropriate.

Every crevice and seam of mattresses and upholstered furniture must be inspected and treated. Dresser drawers have to be emptied and cleaned, and all clutter must be removed to limit hiding places for stray bed bugs. Cracks in walls must be sealed, loose wallpaper reattached or removed, and carpets must be treated and thoroughly vacuumed. Treatment can include cold, hot, or chemical treatment, usually performed by an exterminator. 

How Superheating Works – Water in a Microwave
10 Fast Facts About Amphibians
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How Superheating Works – Water in a Microwave

Have you ever heated water and had it not boil, yet when you moved the container, it started bubbling? If so, you’ve experienced the process of superheating. Superheating occurs when a liquid is heated past its boiling point, yet does not boil.

How Superheating Works

For vapor bubbles to form and expand, the temperature of the liquid needs to be high enough that the vapor pressure of the liquid exceeds the vapor pressure of the air. During superheating, the liquid doesn’t boil even though it is hot enough, usually because the surface tension of the liquid suppresses the formation of bubbles. This is somewhat like the resistance you feel when you try to blow up a balloon. Even when the pressure of the air you blow into the balloon exceeds atmospheric pressure, you still have to contend with the balloon’s resistance to expand.

The excess pressure required to overcome surface tension is inversely proportional to the diameter of the bubble. In other words, it is harder to form a bubble than it is to blow up an existing one. Containers with scratches on them or inhomogeneous liquids often have tiny trapped air bubbles that provide starting bubbles so that superheating won’t occur. Homogeneous liquids that are heated in containers free from imperfections may heat to several degrees past their boiling point before the vapor pressure is sufficient to overcome the surface tension of the liquid. Then, once they start boiling, the bubbles may expand rapidly and violently.

Superheating Water in a Microwave

Boiling of water occurs when bubbles of water vapor expand in liquid water and are released at its surface. When water is heated in a microwave, it may remain undisturbed during the heating process so that there are no nucleation sites around which bubbles may form. The superheated water may appear to be cooler than it really is since the water did not visibly boil. Bumping a cup of superheated water, adding another ingredient (e.g., salt or sugar), or stirring the water may cause it to boil, suddenly and violently. The water may boil over the cup or spray out as steam.

To prevent this from happening, avoid reboiling water. Boiling drives dissolved gases out of water, so when you allow it to cool before boiling it again, there are fewer nucleation sites to allow boiling at the boiling point. Also, if you suspect water is hot enough that it should have boiled, move the container with a long-handled spoon so if explosively boiling occurs, you’re less likely to get burned. Finally, avoid heating water longer than necessary.

Liquids Other Than Water

Other liquids besides water exhibit superheating. Even impure homogeneous liquids, such as coffee or saline, may undergo superheating. Adding sand or dissolved gas to a liquid provides nucleation sites which will minimize the chance that superheating will occur.

Make Bubbly Ice Cream Using Dry Ice
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Make Bubbly Ice Cream Using Dry Ice

Are you in a hurry for your ice cream? Try this quick and easy ice cream recipe using dry ice. The ice cream comes out carbonated, so it’s very interesting.

Safety Information

  • Avoid touching the dry ice. It’s cold enough to give you frostbite.
  • Test the ice cream before eating it to make sure it’s not too cold. If the ice cream is soft, it’s fine to eat. If it freezes very hard, let it warm slightly before digging in.

Dry Ice Ice Cream Ingredients

  • dry ice
  • 2 cups heavy cream
  • 2 cups half-and-half
  • 3/4 cup sugar
  • 2 teaspoons vanilla extract
  • 1/8 teaspoon salt

Make Dry Ice Ice Cream

  1. First, you need to crush the dry ice. Do this by placing your dry ice in a paper bag and either smash it with a mallet or hammer or roll over the bag using a rolling pin.
  2. Mix all of the other ingredients in a large mixing bowl. If you want chocolate ice cream instead of vanilla ice cream, add 1 cup of chocolate syrup.
  3. Shake the dry ice into the ice cream, a little at a time, mixing between additions.
  4. As you add more dry ice, it will start to harden and will get more difficult to mix. Continue adding dry ice until the ice cream has reached the desired consistency.
  5. Feel free to stir in flavorings or candy pieces.
  6. The ice cream may be very cold! Use care when eating it to avoid frostbite. If the ice cream is soft enough to stir or scoop it should be warm enough to eat safely.
  7. You can then freeze leftover ice cream to eat later.

Chocolate Dry Ice Ice Cream Recipe

Do you prefer chocolate? Here’s a simple recipe to try with no eggs or requirement for melting chocolate. It’s easy!

Ingredients

  • dry ice
  • 2 cups heavy whipping cream
  • 1 can sweetened condensed milk
  • 1/2 cup unsweetened cocoa powder
  • 1 teaspoon vanilla extract
  • 1/8 teaspoon salt

Make the Ice Cream

  1. Whip the heavy cream to form stiff peaks.
  2. In a separate bowl, mix together the sweetened condensed milk, cocoa powder, salt, and vanilla.
  3. Crush the dry ice.
  4. Fold some of the heavy cream into the condensed milk mixture.
  5. Add some dry ice.
  6. Fold in the rest of the whipped cream to get a uniform ice cream.
  7. Add the rest of the dry ice, bit by bit, until it freezes.

Eat the ice cream immediately to enjoy the bubbly texture. You can freeze leftovers.

How It Works

Dry ice is colder than a home freezer, so it does a good job of freezing ice cream. Dry ice is solid carbon dioxide that undergoes sublimation to change from solid form into carbon dioxide gas. Some of the carbon dioxide bubbles get trapped in the ice cream. Some of it reacts with the other ingredients. The carbonated ice cream has a slightly tangy flavor, much like that of soda water. Because the flavor is different, you might prefer flavored ice cream over plain vanilla.

The History of Automobile Names
How Superheating Works – Water in a Microwave
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The History of Automobile Names

The automobile has gone by several names in the past and still continues to as variations of motor vehicles have been spun off. For example, there is the common “car” term, but word automobile is often used as well. Then there’s “truck,” “jeep,” “station wagon,” “bus,” “van,” “minivan” and “hatchback” among others. However, it all began with a battle of semantics that pre-dated the word “automobile,” which was coined at the turn of the 20th century.

So what other names for motor vehicles have famous inventors used prior to “automobile?” One good way to find out is to look at the names that were used in their patent applications. Here’s a brief rundown of various car names throughout history:

  • American inventor, engineer and businessman Oliver Evans applied for a U.S. patent in Philadelphia in 1792 for an invention he called “oruktor amphiboles,” which translates to “amphibious digger.” His vehicle was designed to be a steam-powered car that rolled out of his shop in 1804. Initially created for the Philadelphia Board of Health for the purpose of dredging and cleaning docks, the vehicle was capable of moving on both water and land.
  • George Selden, a patent attorney from Rochester, New York, received a patent for something he called a “road machine” in 1879. Due to existing laws at the time, the patent was pre-dated to 1877. Selden expanded its claims over the years. And by 1895, he had a patent for a three-cylinder motor vehicle. While he never actually produced a car, the patent allowed him to collect royalties from all American car manufacturers. Companies paid Selden’s holding company, the Association of Licensed Automotive Manufacturers, for the patent licensing rights to build cars.
  • The fact that Selden hadn’t actually followed through with his idea made the patent questionable to some manufacturers. Henry Ford, industrialist and founder of the Ford Motor Company, was one of those who took issue with Seldon’s licensing fees and refused to pay it. Selden took Ford to court in 1904, but the judge ordered an automobile built according to the Selden patent. It was an utter failure and Selden’s patent was overturned in 1911. Selden could no longer collect royalties and car manufacturers were free to build their vehicles at lower cost without this added expense. 
  • The Duryea brothers patented their “motor wagon” in 1895. They were bicycle makers who became fascinated with the concept of automobiles and gasoline engines. 

“The new mechanical wagon with the awful name automobile has come to stay…” New York Times (1897 article)

The New York Times’ mention of the name “automobile” was the first public use of the term by the media and eventually helped to popularize the name for motor vehicles. Credit for the name actually goes to a 14th century Italian painter and engineer named Martini. While he never built an automobile, he did draw up plans for a man-powered carriage with four wheels. He came up with the name automobile by combining the Greek word “auto” — meaning self — and the Latin word, “mobils,” which means moving. Put them together and you’ve got a self-moving vehicle that doesn’t need horses to pull it.

Other Names for Motor Vehicles Over the Years

Of course, the other popular name for an automobile is the car is thought to be derived from Latin word “carrus” or “carrum,” which means wheeled vehicle. It can also be a variation of the Middle English term carre, meaning cart. Other possibilities include the Gaulish word karros (a Gallic chariot) or the Brythoic word Karr. These terms originally referred to wheeled horse-drawn vehicles such as a cart, carriage or wagon. “Motor car” is the standard formal name for cars in British English.

There were other early media references to motor vehicles and these included names such as autobaine, autokenetic, autometon, automotor horse, buggyaut, diamote, horseless carriage, mocole, motor carriage, motorig, motor-vique and the oleo locomotive.

The word “truck” may have come from “truckle”, which means “small wheel” or “pulley.” It’s derived from the Middle English word “trokell” from the Latin word “trochlea.” It may have also come from the the Latin word “trochus.” The first known usage of “truck” was in 1611, used in reference to the wheels on ships’ cannon carriages.

The word “bus” is a shortened version of the Latin word “omnibus” and “van” is short for the original word “caravan.”

Trámites para solicitar el asilo político en EE.UU.
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Trámites para solicitar el asilo político en EE.UU.

Solicitar y obtener el asilo político permite que personas extranjeras puedan quedarse a vivir en Estados Unidos y ganar estatus legal.

Con el paso del tiempo puede obtener una tarjeta de residencia permanente –green card– y después, si se desea, la ciudadanía estadounidense.

Sin embargo, una nueva política anunciada por el gobierno del presidente Donald Trump y con fecha de entrada en vigor del 16 de julio de 2019 limita grandemente quiénes pueden solicitar asilo en la frontera terrestre que separa Estados Unidos y México, como se explica más abajo.

Causas para solicitar el asilo en Estados Unidos

Puede solicitar asilo político cualquier persona que teme, con fundamento, que pueda ser perseguida o ya ha sufrido persecución por razón de:

  • su raza
  • nacionalidad
  • religión
  • opinión política
  • por pertenecer a un determinado grupo social

Si no se cumple con ninguna de estas causas, todavía hay otras opciones migratorias para las víctimas de:

Dónde y cuándo se solicita el asilo

Para solicitar el asilo es requisito imprescindible que el solicitante se encuentre presencia en Estados Unidos o en una de sus fronteras.

Sin embargo, a partir del 16 de julio de 2019 todos los migrantes que se presentan en la frontera terrestre de Estados Unidos con México y solicitan asilo serán rechazados, excepto en dos excepciones.

En primer lugar, se aceptará la petición de asilo de aquellos migrantes que puedan demostrar que pidieron asilo en al menos un tercer país por el que hayan pasado previamente y dicha solicitud fue rechazada.

A este respecto, Estados Unidos ha firmado acuerdos “de tercer país” con Guatemala y El Salvador de tal manera que los migrantes que camino de EE.UU. pasen por uno de esos dos países, deberán solicitar allí asilo.

Por otro lado, aunque no existe un acuerdo expreso de este tipo entre EE.UU. y México, este último país está dificultando en su territorio el tránsito de migrantes de otros países que se proponen alcanzar la frontera con Estados Unidos.

Y, en segundo lugar, se aceptará para su tramitación –que no quiere decir aprobación– la solicitud de migrantes que, aunque no han pedido asilo en un tercer país, pueden probar que han sido víctimas de una forma severa de tráfico humano.

Esta nueva política afecta los migrantes de todas las nacionalidades que se presentan en la frontera terrestre sur de EE.UU y solicitan asilo, excepto mexicanos, que son vecinos geográficamente y, por lo tanto, no estar obligados a pedir asilo previamente en un tercer país.

Sin embargo, sí que afecta a los mexicanos que se presentan en una frontera marítima.

Por ejemplo, un salvadoreño que sale de su país por vía terrestre con el fin de llegar a EE.UU. está obligado a pedir asilo en Guatemala o México antes que en EE.UU. ya que en la frontera estadounidense solo se aceptará su solicitud si:

  • se cumplen los requisitos para el asilo
  • puede demostrar que aplicó en al menos un país por el que transitó y su aplicación no ha sido aceptada.

Si eso no es así, el oficial de migración de EE.UU. no aceptará una aplicación de asilo en la frontera estadounidense.

Además, las personas que ya se encuentran en EE.UU. podrán solicitar asilo antes de que pase un año a contar desde el día de la última entrada al país.

Sin embargo, existen excepciones a esta última regla. Por ejemplo, si una persona ha entrado hace más de 365 días y en su país de origen se produce un cambio de régimen que lo pone en peligro si regresa, puede entonces solicitar el asilo. Son lo que se llama circunstancias excepcionales o cambiantes.

Obligación de esperar en México

Una de las novedades en materia migratoria impuestas por el gobierno del presidente Donald Trump es el Programa de Protocolo de Protección al Migrante, conocido por sus iniciales MPP o por “Permanecer en México”.

Según este programa que comenzó a implementarse en enero de 2019 en el Puerto de Entrada de San Ysidro y se ha extendido a otros puntos de a frontera sur, los solicitantes de asilo en la frontera que no pasan la entrevista de miedo creíble efectuada en persona, por teléfono o videoconferencia con un oficial de USCIS, son puestos en un procedimiento de remoción y deben esperar en México mientras esperan su caso.

Estas personas reciben una carta en la que se le notifica qué día deben presentarse en la entrada del paso migratorio a EE.UU. para ser escoltados por oficiales de ICE a corte migratoria, para la audiencia preliminar master calendar de su procedimiento.

Ante esa Corte es donde deben luchar para ganar su caso de asilo.

Tipos de solicitud de asilo 

Hay dos posibles caminos para pedir asilo: el afirmativo, que decide el Servicio de Inmigración y Ciudadanía, (USCIS, por sus siglas en inglés) y el defensivo, que se tiene lugar en corte judicial.

Proceso afirmativo de asilo ante USCIS

Como regla general, debe esperarse un proceso largo en el que deben llenarse formularios y presentar un buen argumento de las razones para que el asilo sea aprobado.

El formulario I-589 es el que se utiliza para solicitar el asilo. Una vez que se pone en marcha el proceso se recibirá una carta del USCIS notificando la apertura del caso y su identificación con un nombre.

El solicitante de asilo recibirá más tarde una carta para presentarse en un Centro de Apoyo a Aplicaciones para sacar las huellas digitales y otros datos biométricos.

Si la persona que solicita el asilo incluye en su petición a su cónyuge y/o hijos solteros menores de 21 años y estos están en USA, deberán también presentarse para esa cita.

Posteriormente, el solicitante de asilo recibirá una carta en la que se fija el día y el lugar para una entrevista con un oficial del USCIS. Es muy conveniente ir acompañado de un abogado y preparar la entrevista de tal manera que todo lo que se conteste guarde consistencia con lo que se afirmó en la carta de solicitud de asilo.

Además, si están en USA el cónyuge y/o hijos para los que se pide un asilo derivado, también deben presentarse. Por último, llevar testigos, si los hay y pueden ayudar al caso y toda la documentación que apoye el caso y sirva para identificarse, original y una copia traducida al inglés.

A continuación, el oficial que realiza la entrevista llega a una decisión, que debe ser supervisada por su superior. En algunos casos habrá internamente dentro del USCIS otra revisión, pero son casos excepcionales.

Finalmente, USCIS comunica la decisión, bien en persona al solicitante que debe presentarse de nuevo en una oficina del USCIS o bien por carta.

Si el asilo es aprobado, se puede trabajar y permanecer en Estados Unidos, solicitar un Número del Seguro Social, sacar la licencia de manejar, y se podría tener derecho a ciertos beneficios sociales. 

Sin embargo, la petición puede ser denegada por cualquiera de las siguientes causas:

No se reúnen las condiciones para ser considerado asilado por no probar miedo creíble.

Además, porque se ha cometido cierto tipo de delitos graves o se es considerado un peligro a la seguridad nacional, como por ejemplo formar parte de pandillas.

Asimismo, es causa de negación el haber estado asentado de manera firme en un tercer país antes de venir a los Estados Unidos

También puede negarse por no cumplirse con los requisitos de plazos –1 año desde la última llegada al país para solicitar–, o porque previamente ya una corte lo había denegado y no hay cambios excepcionales.

Si la solicitud de asilo es negada y el solicitante carece de estatus migratorio legal el USCIS lo envía ante el sistema de Cortes de Inmigración donde se abre un proceso de deportación (removal proceedings) y se analizará de nuevo si tiene derecho al asilo, en lo que se conoce como procedimiento defensivo.

Proceso defensivo los requisitos para asilo ante corte

En el proceso defensivo de la solicitud de asilo el solicitante tiene abierto en su contra un procedimiento de deportación ordinario o de expulsión inmediata (removal proceedings).

Esto sucede en varios casos. Por ejemplo:

Cuando el USCIS deniega una petición de asilo (tipo afirmativo) a una persona que no tiene estatus legal.

Asimismo, cuando una persona indocumentada es detenida o es agarrada intentando ingresar ilegalmente la frontera y en ese momento solicita asilo.

Además, cuando una persona realiza una solicitud de asilo al llegar a un puerto de ingreso a EE.UU. y, después de una entrevista con un oficial de USCIS, este determina que no ha pasado satisfactoriamente la entrevista de miedo creíble.

El juez puede conceder la petición de asilo o denegarla. En este último caso, la decisión se puede apelar. Si la solicitud se considera que fue frívola, la persona que la presentó no podrá regresar a EE.UU. siguiendo un conducto legal.

Si se agota la apelación sin que el asilo se conceda, el extranjero debe abandonar Estados Unidos, a menos que pueda conseguir algún tipo de protección, como un withholding of removal también conocida como suspensión de la orden de deportación o una protección bajo el acuerdo contra la tortura (CAT, por sus siglas en inglés).

Asilo para los familiares inmediatos 

El esposo o la mujer y los hijos solteros menores de 21 años de una persona a la que se le aprueba la petición de asilo pueden también beneficiarse de ese mismo estatus, tanto si ya están en ese momento en Estados Unidos como si están en otro país.

En ambos casos lo que tiene que hacer la persona que gana el asilo es llenar una aplicación I-730 (following-to-join) por cada uno de los miembros de su familia que reúnen esas condiciones. Tiene dos años para hacerlo y el plazo comienza a contar desde el día en que se le aprobó la solicitud.

Además, la relación ya tiene que existir en el momento en que se aprueba la solicitud de asilo. Por ejemplo, en el caso de matrimonio, tiene que ser anterior.

Cabe destacar que según las leyes federales de los Estados Unidos pueden obtener beneficios migratorios por razón de matrimonio tanto los matrimonios entre un hombre y una mujer como los de gays y lesbianas.

Cómo conseguir un permiso de trabajo

Por lo general, mientras se tramita la solicitud de asilo en Estados Unidos no se tiene permiso de trabajo.

Sin embargo, puede solicitarse si han pasado más de 150 días desde que se realizó la solicitud y no ha habido una resolución del caso. Pero lo fundamental es entender cómo se computan esos días. En la práctica el permiso de trabajo puede tardar mucho más.

Si el USCIS concede la solicitud, tramitará directamente la autorización (EAD, por sus siglas en inglés).

Si el asilo lo concede un juez de inmigración o una corte de apelaciones entonces se podrá solicitar el EAD al USCIS. Si se tienen dudas de cómo hacerlo, se puede solicitar una cita con el servicio de inmigración a través de Info Pass.

En todo caso en el momento en el que a una persona se le concede el estatus de asilado esa persona adquiere el derecho a trabajar legalmente en Estados Unidos. Es decir, el EAD no es necesario, pero puede pedirse para utilizarlo como un I.D.

Beneficios sociales

Mientras se tramita el asilo algunos estados consideran a los solicitantes como PRUCOL. En estos casos tienen derechos a algunos beneficios sociales si reúnen los requisitos. 

Cómo obtener la green card

Las personas a las que se le ha reconocido el estatus de asilados pueden solicitar un ajuste de estatus y la correspondiente tarjeta de residencia, conocida como green card.

Para ello deben cumplir con una serie de requisitos como haber residido físicamente en Estados Unidos por al menos un año, seguir sufriendo la condición que lo ha convertido en asilado y cumplir con los requisitos necesarios para convertirse en emigrante legal en Estados Unidos.

A los cuatro años de la fecha de obtención de la tarjeta de residencia pueden solicitar la ciudadanía estadounidense por naturalización.

En algunos casos, será necesario pedir un perdón –también como waiver–para levantar los problemas que impiden la obtención de la green card.

Viajar al extranjero mientras como asilado

Se recomienda solicitar unos 60 días antes de viajar un documento para viajar rellenando el formulario I-131, que es válido por un año.

Se puede salir de Estados Unidos sin esperar por la entrega del documento. Se puede solicitar que envíe a una oficina consular y recogerlo allí.

En cuanto a viajar al país de origen, es algo que se puede hacer, pero con prudencia, ya que Estados Unidos puede considerar que hubo un fraude en la solicitud de asilo o que las circunstancias que motivaron su petición ya no existen y, por lo tanto, ya no cumple las condiciones para ser considerado un asilado.

Estadísticas latinoamericanos y asilo en EE.UU.

No hay cifras oficiales del número total de casos de asilo aprobados. Sin embargo, sí hay datos parciales que se obtienen a partir de las decisiones dictadas por cortes de inmigración. Están excluidos de dichos datos las resoluciones sobre asilo acordadas por oficiales de USCIS.

Según Syracuse University, en el año fiscal 2018, las cortes migratorias de EE.UU. decidieron un total de 42.228 casos de asilo, de los cuales negaron la solicitud un 65 por ciento de las veces. En otras palabras, las cortes solo aprobaron el 35 por ciento de los casos.

En cuanto a los solicitante de origen latinoamericano, las cortes decidieron sobre un total de 8.232 casos en los que los solicitantes procedían de El Salvador, aprobando el 23,5 por ciento de los mismos, es decir, 1.935 salvadoreños obtuvieron el asilo en corte.

Se resolvieron 6.240 casos afectando a hondureños, aprobándose el 21,2 por ciento de los mismos, es decir, 1.323.

Se decidieron 6.052 casos de guatemaltecos, aprobándose el 18,8 por ciento de los mismos, lo cual supone 1.138 casos ganados.

Y se resolvieron 5.379 casos de mexicanos, aprobándose el 14,5 por ciento, es decir 780.

Cabe destacar que en algunos casos en los que se negó el asilo, se autorizó a permanecer en Estados Unidos aplicando alguna forma de alivio a la deportación, especialmente en el caso de ciudadanos de El Salvador, Guatemala y Honduras.

Asimismo, resaltar que aunque no se cuenta con datos oficiales, se estima que USCIS aprueba un número destacable de solicitudes de asilo presentadas por menores procedentes de esos tres países de Centroamérica.

Los datos de aprobación y negación de solicitudes de asilo por pueden consultarse por nacionalidad del solicitante y corte en una herramienta creada por la Universidad de Syracuse.

Asilo político en EE.UU.

  • Para solicitar y obtener el asilo político en EE.UU. es necesario persecución pasada o miedo creíble de ser perseguido si se regresa al país de origen por razón de raza, nacionalidad, religión, opinión política o membresía en un determinado grupo.
  • El asilo político debe solicitarse en la frontera de EE.UU. o, en determinadas circunstancias especiales, estando ya presente en el interior del país.
  • Una nueva política del presidente Trump obliga a los migrantes que llegan a la frontera terrestre de México con EE.UU. a demostrar que han solicitado asilo en al menos un tercer país antes de aceptar su solicitud de asilo. Las únicas nacionalidades excluidas son los mexicanos y los canadienses, por razones geográficas.
  • El asilo político puede ser afirmativo, ante el Servicio de Inmigración y Ciudadanía, o defensivo, ante Corte migratoria.
  • En caso de obtener el asilo, los familiares inmediatos podrán también beneficiase.
  • La obtención del asilo es un trampolín hacia la tarjeta de residencia y, si se desea, hacia la ciudadanía estadounidense por naturalización.

Este artículo es solo informativo. No es asesoría legal.

Phases of the Cardiac Cycle When the Heart Beats
The History of Automobile Names
Tác giả

Phases of the Cardiac Cycle When the Heart Beats

The cardiac cycle is the sequence of events that occurs when the heart beats. As the heart beats, it circulates blood through pulmonary and systemic circuits of the body. There are two phases of the cardiac cycle: The diastole phase and the systole phase. In the diastole phase, heart ventricles relax and the heart fills with blood. In the systole phase, the ventricles contract and pump blood out of the heart to arteries. One cardiac cycle is completed when the heart chambers fill with blood and blood is pumped out of the heart.

The Cardiovascular System

The cardiac cycle is vital to proper cardiovascular system function. Comprised of the heart and circulatory system, the cardiovascular system transports nutrients to and removes gaseous waste from the cells of the body. The cardiac cycle provides the “muscle” needed to pump blood throughout the body. Blood vessels act as pathways that transport blood to various destinations.

The driving force behind the cardiac cycle is the electrical system known as cardiac conduction. This powers the cardiovascular system. Specialized tissues called heart nodes send nerve impulses that disperse throughout the heart wall to make the heart muscle contract.

Cardiac Cycle Phases

The events of the cardiac cycle described below trace the path of blood from when it enters the heart to when it is pumped out of the heart to the rest of the body. Periods of contraction and pumping are systole and periods of relaxation and filling are diastole. The atria and ventricles of the heart both go through diastole and systole phases and diastole and systole phases occur simultaneously.

Ventricular Diastole

Mariana Ruiz Villarreal / Wikimedia Commons / Public Domain


During the ventricular diastole period, the atria and heart ventricles are relaxed and the atrioventricular valves are open. Oxygen-depleted blood returning to the heart from the body following the last cardiac cycle passes through the superior and inferior vena cavae and flows to the right atrium.

The open atrioventricular valves (tricuspid and mitral) allow blood to pass through the atria to the ventricles. Impulses from the sinoatrial (SA) node travel to the atrioventricular (AV) node and the AV node sends a signal that triggers both atria to contract. As a result of this contraction, the right atrium empties its contents into the right ventricle. The tricuspid valve, located between the right atrium and right ventricle, prevents blood from flowing back into the right atrium.

Ventricular Systole

Mariana Ruiz Villarreal / Wikimedia Commons / Public Domain


At the beginning of the ventricular systole period, the right ventricle, which is filled with blood passed on from the right atrium, receives impulses from fiber branches (Purkinje fibers) carrying electrical impulses that cause it to contract. As this occurs, the atrioventricular valves close and the semilunar valves (pulmonary and aortic valves) open.

Ventricular contraction causes oxygen-depleted blood from the right ventricle to be pumped to the pulmonary artery. The pulmonary valve prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle. The pulmonary artery carries de-oxygenated blood along the pulmonary circuit to the lungs. There, the blood collects oxygen and returns to the left atrium of the heart through the pulmonary veins.

Atrial Diastole

In the atrial diastole period, the semilunar valves close and the atrioventricular valves open. Oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins fills the left atrium while blood from the venae cavae fills the right atrium. The SA node contracts again triggering both atria to do the same.

Atrial contraction causes the left atrium to empty its contents into the left ventricle and the right atrium to empty its contents into the right ventricle. The mitral valve, located between the left atrium and left ventricle, prevents oxygenated blood from flowing back into the left atrium.

Atrial Systole

During the atrial systole period, the atrioventricular valves close and the semilunar valves open. The ventricles receive impulses to contract. Oxygenated blood in the left ventricle is pumped to the aorta and the aortic valve prevents the oxygenated blood from flowing back into the left ventricle. Oxygen-depleted blood is also pumped from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery at this time.

The aorta branches out to provide oxygenated blood to all parts of the body through systemic circulation. After its tour through the body, de-oxygenated blood is returned to the heart via the venae cavae.

An Introduction to Literary Nonfiction
Trámites para solicitar el asilo político en EE.UU.
Tác giả

An Introduction to Literary Nonfiction

Like literary journalism, literary nonfiction is a type of prose that employs the literary techniques usually associated with fiction or poetry to report on persons, places, and events in the real world without altering facts.

The genre of literary nonfiction, also known as creative nonfiction, is broad enough to include travel writing, nature writing, science writing, sports writing, biography, autobiography, memoir,
interviews, and familiar and personal essays. Literary nonfiction is alive and well, but it is not without its critics.

Examples

Here are several examples of literary nonfiction from noted authors:

  • “The Cries of London,” by Joseph Addison
  • “Death of a Soldier,” by Louisa May Alcott
  • “A Glorious Resurrection,” by Frederick Douglass
  • “The San Francisco Earthquake,” by Jack London
  • “The Watercress Girl,” by Henry Mayhew

Observations

  • “The word literary masks all kinds of ideological concerns, all kinds of values, and is finally more a way of looking at a text, a way of reading…than an inherent property of a text.”
    (Chris Anderson, “Introduction: Literary Nonfiction and Composition” in “Literary Nonfiction: Theory, Criticism, Pedagogy”)
  • Fictional Devices in Literary Nonfiction
    “One of the profound changes to have affected serious writing in recent years has been the spread of fiction and poetry techniques into literary nonfiction: the ‘show, don’t tell’ requirement, the emphasis on concrete sensory detail and avoidance of abstraction, the use of recurrent imagery as symbolic motif, the taste for the present tense, even the employment of unreliable narrators. There has always been some crossover between the genres. I am no genre purist, and welcome the cross-pollination, and have dialogue scenes in my own personal essays (as did Addison and Steele). But it is one thing to accept using dialogue scenes or lyrical imagery in a personal narrative, and quite another to insist that every part of that narrative be rendered in scenes or concrete sensory descriptions. A previous workshop teacher had told one of my students, ‘Creative non-fiction is the application of fictional devices to memory.’ With such narrow formulae, indifferent to nonfiction’s full range of options, is it any wonder that students have started to shy away from making analytical distinctions or writing reflective commentary?”
    (Phillip Lopate, “To Show and to Tell: The Craft of Literary Nonfiction”)
  • Practical Nonfiction vs. Literary Nonfiction
    “Practical nonfiction is designed to communicate information in circumstances where the quality of the writing is not considered as important as the content. Practical nonfiction appears mainly in popular magazines, newspaper Sunday supplements, feature articles, and in self-help and how-to books…
    “Literary nonfiction puts emphasis on the precise and skilled use of words and tone, and the assumption that the reader is as intelligent as the writer. While information is included, insight about that information, presented with some originality, may predominate. Sometimes the subject of literary nonfiction may not at the onset be of great interest to the reader, but the character of the writing may lure the reader into that subject.
    “Literary nonfiction appears in books, in some general magazines such as The New Yorker, Harper’s, the Atlantic, Commentary, the New York Review of Books, in many so-called little or small-circulation magazines, in a few newspapers regularly and in some other newspapers from time to time, occasionally in a Sunday supplement, and in book review media.”
    (Sol Stein, Stein on Writing: A Master Editor of Some of the Most Successful Writers of Our Century Shares His Craft Techniques and Strategies)
  • Literary Nonfiction in the English Department
    “It might be the case that composition studies…needs the category of ‘literary nonfiction’ to assert its place in the hierarchy of discourse comprising the modern English department. As English departments became increasingly centered on the interpretation of texts, it became increasingly important for compositionists to identify texts of their own.”
    (Douglas Hesse, “The Recent Rise of Literary Nonfiction: A Cautionary Assay” in “Composition Theory for the Postmodern Classroom”)
    “Whether critics are arguing about contemporary American nonfiction for historical or theoretical purposes, one of the primary (overt and usually stated) aims is to persuade other critics to take literary nonfiction seriously—to grant it the status of poetry, drama, and fiction.”
    (Mark Christopher Allister, “Refiguring the Map of Sorrow: Nature Writing and Autobiography”)
Stephen F. Austin, Founding Father of Texan Independence
Phases of the Cardiac Cycle When the Heart Beats
Tác giả

Stephen F. Austin, Founding Father of Texan Independence

Stephen F. Austin (November 3, 1793–December 27, 1836) was a lawyer, settler, and administrator who played a key role in the secession of Texas from Mexico. He brought hundreds of U.S. families into Texas on behalf of the Mexican government, which wished to populate the isolated northern state.

Fast Facts: Stephen F. Austin

  • Known For: Key role in the U.S. colonization of Texas and its secession from Mexico
  • Born: November 3, 1793 in Virginia
  • Parents: Moses Austin and Mary Brown Austin
  • Died: December 27, 1836 in Austin Texas
  • Education: Bacon Academy, Transylvania University
  • Spouse: None
  • Children: None

At first, Austin was a diligent agent for Mexico, but later he became a fierce fighter for Texas independence and is today remembered in Texas as one of the most important founding fathers of the state.

Early Life

Stephen Fuller Austin was born in Virginia on November 3, 1793, the son of Moses Austin and Mary Brown. Moses was a businessman and lead mine owner, and he began his working life in Philadelphia, where he met in 1784 and married Mary Brown, known as Maria. Moses ran a mercantile business in Richmond, Virginia with his brother Stephen. Moses and Mary’s first daughter Anna Maria was born and died in Richmond in 1787. In 1788, Moses and Stephen and their families moved to Wythe County, Virginia to own and operate a lead mine. In a settlement which would become known as Austinville, Moses and Mary had Eliza (1790–1790), Stephen (1793–1836), and Emily (1795–1851).

In 1796, Moses Austin traveled to the Spanish colony of St. Louis on the Mississippi River, now in eastern Missouri, where he finagled permission from the commandant to search for a new lead mine near Ste. Genevieve. He moved his family to Ste. Genevieve in 1798, where the last Austin sibling, James Elijah “Brown,” was born (1803–1829).

Education

In 1804, Stephen, age 11, was sent off by himself to Connecticut, where relatives found him a good school to attend: the Bacon Academy in Colchester, where he studied English grammar and writing, logic, rhetoric, geometry, geography, and a little Latin and Greek. He graduated in 1807 and was then sent to Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky, where he studied math, geography, and astronomy, and left in 1810 with a certificate.

Stephen arrived back in Ste. Genevieve in 1810, where his father put him in a prominent role in the mercantile business. For the next several years, Stephen Austin’s informal education included time spent in New Orleans with a shipment of lead during the War of 1812, as a militiaman harassing Indigenous peoples in what is today central Illinois, and taking over the lead mine when his father grew too ill to continue. In New Orleans, he contracted malaria, which he never fully recovered from. In 1815, Stephen Austin ran for a seat in what was now the Missouri territorial legislature, taking his position in the lower House in December.

Moses Austin eventually lost his fortune in lead mining and traveled westward to Texas, where the elder Austin fell in love with the ruggedly beautiful lands of Texas and secured permission from Spanish authorities—Mexico was not yet independent—to bring a group of settlers there. Moses fell ill and died in 1821; his final wish was that Stephen complete his settlement project.

Settlement of Texas

Stephen Austin’s planned settlement of Texas hit many snags between 1821 and 1830, not the least of which was the fact that Mexico achieved independence in 1821, meaning he had to renegotiate his father’s grant. Emperor Iturbide of Mexico came and went, leading to further confusion. Attacks by Indigenous tribes such as the Comanche were a constant problem, and Austin very nearly went broke meeting his obligations. Still, he persevered, and by 1830 he was in charge of a thriving colony of settlers, nearly all of whom had accepted Mexican citizenship and converted to Roman Catholicism.

Although Austin remained staunchly pro-Mexican, Texas itself was becoming more and more American in nature. By 1830 or so, mostly Anglo-American settlers outnumbered Mexicans in the Texas territory by almost 10 to 1. The rich land drew not only legitimate settlers, such as those in Austin’s colony, but also squatters and other unauthorized settlers who simply moved in, selected some land, and set up a homestead. Austin’s colony was the most important settlement, however, and the families there had begun raising cotton, mules, and other goods for export, much of which went through New Orleans. These differences and others convinced many that Texas should leave Mexico and become part of the U.S. or independent.

The Trip to Mexico City

In 1833, Austin went to Mexico City to clear up some business with the Mexican Federal government. He was bringing new demands from the Texas settlers, including separation from Coahuila (Texas and Coahuila were one state at the time) and reduced taxes. Meanwhile, he sent letters home hoping to placate those Texans who favored outright separation from Mexico. Some of Austin’s letters home, including some telling Texans to go ahead and begin to declare statehood before the approval of the federal government, made their way to officials in Mexico City. While returning to Texas, Austin was arrested, brought back to Mexico City, and thrown into jail.

Austin was in jail in Mexico City for a year and a half; he was never tried or even formally charged with anything. It is perhaps ironic that the Mexicans jailed one Texan who was at least initially inclined to keep Texas part of Mexico. As it was, Austin’s jailing probably sealed Texas’ fate. Released in August of 1835, Austin returned to Texas a changed man. His loyalty to Mexico had been ground out of him in prison, and he realized now that Mexico would never grant the rights his people desired. Also, by the time he returned in late 1835, it was clear that Texas was on a path destined for conflict with Mexico and that it was too late for a peaceful solution. When push came to shove, Austin would choose Texas over Mexico.

The Texas Revolution

Not long after Austin’s return, Texas rebels fired on Mexican soldiers in the town of Gonzales. The Battle of Gonzales, as it came to be known, marked the beginning of the military phase of the Texas Revolution. Not long after, Austin was named commander of all Texan military forces. Along with Jim Bowie and James Fannin, he marched on San Antonio, where Bowie and Fannin won the Battle of Concepción. Austin returned to the town of San Felipe, where delegates from all over Texas were meeting to determine its fate.

At the convention, Austin was replaced as military commander by Sam Houston. Austin, whose health was still frail after his 1812 bout with malaria, was in favor of the change; his brief stint as general had proven decisively that he was no military man. Instead, he was given a job much better suited to his abilities. He would be the Texas envoy to the United States, where he would seek official recognition if Texas declared independence, purchase and send weapons, encourage volunteers to take up arms and head to Texas, and see to other important tasks.

Return to Texas

Austin made his way to Washington, stopping along the way at key cities such as New Orleans and Memphis, where he gave speeches, encouraged volunteers to go to Texas, secured loans (usually to be repaid in Texas land after independence), and met with officials. He was a big hit and always drew a large crowd. Texas effectively gained independence on April 21, 1836, at the Battle of San Jacinto, and Austin returned not long after.

Death

He lost the election to be the first president of the Republic of Texas to Sam Houston, who appointed him Secretary of State. Austin fell ill of pneumonia and died on December 27, 1836.

Legacy

Austin was a hardworking, honorable man caught up in times of sweeping change and chaos. He was a skillful colony administrator, a canny diplomat, and a diligent lawyer. The only thing he tried that he did not excel at was war. After “leading” the Texas army to San Antonio, he quickly and happily turned command over to Sam Houston, who was much more suited to the job. Austin was only 43 when he died.

It is a little misleading that Austin’s name is usually associated with the Texas Revolution. Up until 1835, Austin was the leading proponent of working things out with Mexico, and at that time his was the most influential voice in Texas. Austin remained loyal to Mexico long after most men in Texas were rebelling. Only after a year and a half in jail and a first-hand look at the anarchy in Mexico City did he decide that Texas must set out on its own. Once he made the decision, he threw himself wholeheartedly into revolution.

The people of Texas consider Austin one of their greatest heroes. The city of Austin is named after him, as are countless streets, parks, and schools, including Austin College and Stephen F. Austin State University.

Sources:

  • Brands, H.W. “Lone Star Nation: The Epic Story of the Battle for Texas Independence.“New York: Anchor Books, 2004.
  • Cantrell, Gregg. “Stephen F. Austin: Empresario of Texas.” New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1999.
  • Henderson, Timothy J. “A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and its War with the United StatesNew York: Hill and Wang, 2007.
Telling Time in French
An Introduction to Literary Nonfiction
Tác giả

Telling Time in French

Whether you’re traveling to France or learning the French language, being able to tell time is important. From asking what time it is to the key vocabulary you need for speaking in French about hours, minutes, and days, this lesson will guide you through everything you need to know.

French Vocabulary for Telling Time

To begin with, there are a few key French vocabulary words related to time that you should know. These are the basics and will help you throughout the rest of this lesson.

time l’heure
noon midi
midnight minuit
and a quarter et quart
quarter to moins le quart
and a half et demie
in the morning du matin
in the afternoon de l’après-midi
in the evening du soir

The Rules for Telling Time in French

Telling time in French is just a matter of knowing the French numbers and a few formulas and rules. It’s different than we use in English, so here are the basics:

  • The French word for “time,” as in, “What time is it?” is l’heure, not le temps. The latter means “time” as in “I spent a lot of time there.”
  • In English, we often leave out “o’clock” and it’s perfectly fine to say “It’s seven.” or “I’m leaving at three-thirty.” This is not so in French. You always have to say heure, except when saying midi (noon) and minuit (midnight).
  • In French, the hour and minute are separated by h (for heure, as in 2h00) where in English we use a colon (: as in 2:00).
  • French doesn’t have words for “a.m.” and “p.m.” You can use du matin for a.m., de l’après-midi from noon until about 6 p.m., and du soir from 6 p.m. until midnight. However, time is usually expressed on a 24-hour clock. That means that 3 p.m. is normally expressed as quinze heures (15 hours) or 15h00, but you can also say trois heures de l’après-midi (three hours after noon).

What Time Is It? (Quelle heure est-il?)

When you ask what time it is, you will receive an answer similar to this. Keep in mind that there are a few different ways to express different times within the hour, so it’s a good idea to familiarize yourself with all of these. You can even practice this throughout your day and speak the time in French whenever you look at a clock.

It’s one o’clock Il est une heure 1h00
It’s two o’clock Il est deux heures 2h00
It’s 3:30 Il est trois heures et demie

Il est trois heures trente
3h30
It’s 4:15 Il est quatre heures et quart

Il est quatre heures quinze
4h15
It’s 4:45 Il est cinq heures moins le quart

Il est cinq heures moins quinze

Il est quatre heures quarante-cinq
4h45
It’s 5:10 Il est cinq heures dix 5h10
It’s 6:50 Il est sept heures moins dix

Il est six heures cinquante
6h50
It’s 7 a.m. Il est sept heures du matin 7h00
It’s 3 p.m. Il est trois heures de l’après-midi

Il est quinze heures
15h00
It’s noon Il est midi 12h00
It’s midnight Il est minuit 0h00

Asking the Time in French

Conversations regarding what time it is will use questions and answers similar to these. If you’re traveling in a French-speaking country, you’ll find these very useful as you try to maintain your itinerary.

What time is it? Quelle heure est-il ?
Do you have the time, please? Est-ce que vous avez l’heure, s’il vous plaît ?
What time is the concert?

The concert is at eight o’clock in the evening.
À quelle heure est le concert ?

Le concert est à huit heures du soir.

Periods of Time in French

Now that we have the basics of telling time covered, expand your French vocabulary by studying the words for periods of time. From seconds to millennium, this shortlist of words covers the entire expanse of time.  

a second une seconde
a minute une minute
an hour une heure
a day / a whole day un jour, une journée
a week une semaine
a month un mois
a year / a whole year un an,
une année
a decade une décennie
a century un siècle
a millennium un millénaire

Points in Time in French

Each day has various points in time that you might need to describe in French. For instance, you might want to talk about a beautiful sunset or let someone know what you’re doing at night. Commit these words to memory and you’ll have no problem doing just that.

sunrise le lever de soleil
dawn l’aube (f)
morning le matin
afternoon l’après-midi
noon midi
evening le soir
dusk le crépuscule,
entre chien et loup
sunset le coucher de soleil
night la nuit
midnight le minuit

Temporal Prepositions

As you begin to formulate sentences with your new French time vocabulary, you will find it useful to know these temporal prepositions. These short words are used to further define when something is taking place.

since depuis
during pendant
at à
in en
in dans
for pour

Relative Time in French

Time is relative to other points in time. For instance, there is always a yesterday which is followed by today and tomorrow, so you’ll find this vocabulary a great addition to your ability to explain relationships in time. 

yesterday hier
today aujourd’hui
now maintenant
tomorrow demain
the day before yesterday avant-hier
the day after tomorrow l’après-demain
the day before, the eve of la veille de
the day after, the next day le lendemain
last week la semaine passée/dernière
the final week la dernière semaine (Notice how
dernier is in a different position in “last week” and “the final week.” That subtle change has a significant impact on the meaning.)
next week la semaine prochaine
days of the week les jours de la semaine
months of the year les mois de l’année
the calendar le​ calendrier
the four seasons les quatre saisons
winter came early / late

spring came early / late

summer came early / late

autumn came early / late
l’hiver fut précoce / tardif


le printemps fut précoce / tardif


l’ete fut précoce / tardif


l’automne fut précoce / tardif
last winter

last spring

last summer

last autumn
l’hiver dernier

le printemps dernier

l’ete dernier

l’automne dernier
next winter

next spring

next summer

next autumn
l’hiver prochain

le printemps prochain

l’ete prochain

l’automne prochain
a little while ago, in a little while tout à l’heure
right away tout de suite
within a week d’ici une semaine
for, since depuis
ago (
depuis versus il y a)
il y a
on time à l’heure
in time à temps
at that time à l’époque
early en avance
late en retard

Temporal Adverbs

As you become even more fluent in French, consider adding a few temporal adverbs to your vocabulary. Once again, they can be used to further define when something is taking place.

currently actuellement
then alors
after après
today aujourd’hui
previously, beforehand auparavant
before avant
soon bientôt
meanwhile cependant
afterwards, meanwhile ensuite
for a long time longtemps
now maintenant
anytime n’importe quand
then puis
recently récemment
late tard
all of a sudden, suddenly tout à coup
in a little while, a little while ago tout à l’heure

Frequency in French

There will also be times when you need to speak about the frequency of an event. Whether it only happens once or reoccurs on a weekly or monthly basis, this short vocabulary list will help you achieve that.

once une fois
once a week une fois par semaine
daily quotidien
every day tous les jours
every other day tous les deux jours
weekly hebdomadaire
every week toutes les semaines
monthly mensuel
yearly annuel

Adverbs of Frequency

Adverbs that relate to frequency are just as important and you’ll find yourself using this quite often as your French studies progress.

again encore
one more time encore une fois
never, ever jamais
sometimes parfois
sometimes quelquefois
rarely rarement
often souvent
always toujours

Time Itself: Le Temps

Le temps refers broadly either to the weather or a duration of time, indeterminate or specific. Because it is such a basic concept that surrounds us every day, many French idiomatic expressions have evolved using temps. Here are a few common ones that you might need to know.

a little while ago il y a peu de temps
in a little while dans un moment, dans quelque temps
at the same time en même temps
at the same time as au même temps que
cooking / preparation time temps de cuisson / préparation cuisine
a part-time job un temps partiel
a full-time job un temps plein ou plein temps
to work part-time être ou travailler à temps partiel
to work full-time être ou travailler à plein temps ou à temps plein
to work full-time travailler à temps complet
to work 30 hours per week faire un trois quarts (de) temps
time to think le temps de la réflexion
to reduce working hours diminuer le temps de travail
to have some spare time / free time avoir du temps libre
in one’s spare time, in a spare moment à temps perdu
in times past, in the old days au temps jadis
with the passing of time avec le temps
all the time, always tout le temps
in music, a strong beat / figuratively, a high point or a highlight temps fort
in sports, a time-out / figuratively, a lull or a slack period temps mort


Watch Now:
How to Say “I’m a Student” in French




What Is Borax and How Is It Used?
Stephen F. Austin, Founding Father of Texan Independence
Tác giả

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